Skip to content
Diabetes
Pharmaceuticals

Diabetes

Diabetes medications play a crucial role in controlling blood sugar levels in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. They vary from insulin injections, which directly regulate blood sugar, to oral medications, which support the body's insulin production or reduce the absorption of sugar in the intestine.
  • NovoFine® 32G 4MM , 100 pcs.

    Original price $39.00 - Original price $39.00
    Original price
    $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
    $39.00 - $39.00
    Current price $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
    NOVO NORDISK PHARMA GMBH

    NovoFine® 32G 4MM needles: Painless insulin injections 100 pieces per pack: Long-term supply Ultra-fine 32G needle: Gentle application, minimal ri...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $39.00 - Original price $39.00
    Original price
    $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
    $39.00 - $39.00
    Current price $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
  • NovoFine® 6mm 32g TIP etw hypodermic needles, 100 pcs.

    Original price $39.00 - Original price $39.00
    Original price
    $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
    $39.00 - $39.00
    Current price $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
    NOVO NORDISK PHARMA GMBH

    Sterile disposable needle 0.32 x 6 mm Dimensions Fine needle tip of 0.23 mm Conical shape for gentle penetration Polished surface for a pleasant i...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $39.00 - Original price $39.00
    Original price
    $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
    $39.00 - $39.00
    Current price $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
  • beurer Blood Glucose Test Strips GL40, 50 pcs.

    Original price $34.00 - Original price $34.00
    Original price
    $34.00 ($0.68/St) incl. VAT
    $34.00 - $34.00
    Current price $34.00 ($0.68/St) incl. VAT
    beurer

    50 test strips easy handling minimum blood volume of 0.6 microliters Glucose test zone code-free 25 test strips per box Stable for up to 90 days a...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $34.00 - Original price $34.00
    Original price
    $34.00 ($0.68/St) incl. VAT
    $34.00 - $34.00
    Current price $34.00 ($0.68/St) incl. VAT
  • BD Microlance 3 needles 22 G 1 1/4 0.7 x 30 mm, 100 pcs.

    Original price $11.00 - Original price $11.00
    Original price
    $11.00 ($0.11/St) incl. VAT
    $11.00 - $11.00
    Current price $11.00 ($0.11/St) incl. VAT
    BECTON DICKINSON GMBH

    BD Microlance™ 3 cannulas offer triple bevelled edges for outstanding sharpness and precision. Ultrasonic polishing and silicone coating enable ge...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $11.00 - Original price $11.00
    Original price
    $11.00 ($0.11/St) incl. VAT
    $11.00 - $11.00
    Current price $11.00 ($0.11/St) incl. VAT
  • Microlet® Lancets, 200 pcs.

    Original price $25.00 - Original price $25.00
    Original price
    $25.00 ($0.13/St) incl. VAT
    $25.00 - $25.00
    Current price $25.00 ($0.13/St) incl. VAT
    ASCENSIA DIABETES CARE

    Gentle blood drop collection Compatible with Microlet® 2 lancing device Practical dispenser box Enables a comfortable and gentle experience Specia...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $25.00 - Original price $25.00
    Original price
    $25.00 ($0.13/St) incl. VAT
    $25.00 - $25.00
    Current price $25.00 ($0.13/St) incl. VAT
  • Microlet® Lancets, 100 pcs.

    Original price $18.00 - Original price $18.00
    Original price
    $18.00 ($0.18/St) incl. VAT
    $18.00 - $18.00
    Current price $18.00 ($0.18/St) incl. VAT
    ASCENSIA DIABETES CARE

    Gentle blood collection: The Microlet® lancets enable a drop of blood to be collected gently. Compatibility: They are specially designed for use w...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $18.00 - Original price $18.00
    Original price
    $18.00 ($0.18/St) incl. VAT
    $18.00 - $18.00
    Current price $18.00 ($0.18/St) incl. VAT
  • ACCU-CHEK® FastClix lancets, 204 pcs.

    Original price $31.00 - Original price $31.00
    Original price
    $31.00 ($0.15/St) incl. VAT
    $31.00 - $31.00
    Current price $31.00 ($0.15/St) incl. VAT
    Roche

    Suitable for the ACCU-CHEK® FastClix device Specially developed for ACCU-CHEK® FastClix lancing device Contains six lancets Provides a reliable an...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $31.00 - Original price $31.00
    Original price
    $31.00 ($0.15/St) incl. VAT
    $31.00 - $31.00
    Current price $31.00 ($0.15/St) incl. VAT
  • BD Micro FINE™+ U 40 insulin syringes 8 mm, 50ml

    Original price $41.00 - Original price $41.00
    Original price
    $41.00 ($0.82/ml) incl. VAT
    $41.00 - $41.00
    Current price $41.00 ($0.82/ml) incl. VAT
    BECTON DICKINSON GMBH

    Especially for U40 insulin Red cap and scale 8 mm needle length 0.30 mm needle size 0.5 ml volume Single use Sterile packaging

    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $41.00 - Original price $41.00
    Original price
    $41.00 ($0.82/ml) incl. VAT
    $41.00 - $41.00
    Current price $41.00 ($0.82/ml) incl. VAT
  • Combur 5 Test® HC test strips, 10 pcs.

    Original price $11.00 - Original price $11.00
    Original price
    $11.00 ($1.10/St) incl. VAT
    $11.00 - $11.00
    Current price $11.00 ($1.10/St) incl. VAT
    Roche

    Combur 5 Test® HC Test Strips For the detection of various substances in urine Can provide early indications of diseases Easy to perform and quick...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $11.00 - Original price $11.00
    Original price
    $11.00 ($1.10/St) incl. VAT
    $11.00 - $11.00
    Current price $11.00 ($1.10/St) incl. VAT
  • Sterican® insulin cannula G26 x 1/2 inch 0.45 x 12 mm brown, 100 pcs.

    Original price $9.00 - Original price $9.00
    Original price
    $9.00 ($0.09/St) incl. VAT
    $9.00 - $9.00
    Current price $9.00 ($0.09/St) incl. VAT
    B. Braun

    Sterican® insulin cannula G26 x 1/2 inch 0.45 x 12 mm brown Sterile disposable cannula for gentle insulin injection Compatible with Injekt® and Om...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $9.00 - Original price $9.00
    Original price
    $9.00 ($0.09/St) incl. VAT
    $9.00 - $9.00
    Current price $9.00 ($0.09/St) incl. VAT
  • NovoFine® 8mm 30g TW injection needles, 100 pcs.

    Original price $39.00 - Original price $39.00
    Original price
    $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
    $39.00 - $39.00
    Current price $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
    NOVO NORDISK PHARMA GMBH

    Sterile disposable needle 0.30 x 8 mm TW For injection systems from Novo Nordisk Single use Optimal sterility Undamaged protective flap Functional...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $39.00 - Original price $39.00
    Original price
    $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
    $39.00 - $39.00
    Current price $39.00 ($0.39/St) incl. VAT
  • mylife Clickfine® 6 mm needles, 100 pcs.

    Original price $37.00 - Original price $37.00
    Original price
    $37.00 ($0.37/St) incl. VAT
    $37.00 - $37.00
    Current price $37.00 ($0.37/St) incl. VAT
    YPSOMED GMBH

    Clickfine® 6 mm cannulas Universal click technology Low-pain injection with silicone coating Audible "click" for secure hold Five different sizes ...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $37.00 - Original price $37.00
    Original price
    $37.00 ($0.37/St) incl. VAT
    $37.00 - $37.00
    Current price $37.00 ($0.37/St) incl. VAT
  • ACCU-CHEK® Aviva Test Strips Plasma II, 50 pcs.

    Original price $33.00 - Original price $33.00
    Original price
    $33.00 ($0.66/St) incl. VAT
    $33.00 - $33.00
    Current price $33.00 ($0.66/St) incl. VAT
    Roche

    Simple and precise quantitative determination of blood glucose Contains a special glucose test zone for accurate measurement Maltose-eliminated an...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $33.00 - Original price $33.00
    Original price
    $33.00 ($0.66/St) incl. VAT
    $33.00 - $33.00
    Current price $33.00 ($0.66/St) incl. VAT
  • GlucoCheck Excellent test strips, 50 pcs.

    Original price $30.00 - Original price $30.00
    Original price
    $30.00 ($0.60/St) incl. VAT
    $30.00 - $30.00
    Current price $30.00 ($0.60/St) incl. VAT
    AKTIVMED GMBH

    Specially developed for GlucoCheck Excellent measuring system Requires only 0.5 µl blood for accurate measurement results Measurement result in on...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $30.00 - Original price $30.00
    Original price
    $30.00 ($0.60/St) incl. VAT
    $30.00 - $30.00
    Current price $30.00 ($0.60/St) incl. VAT
  • BD Micro-Fine Ultra™ 8 mm 31G, 105 pcs.

    Original price $38.00 - Original price $38.00
    Original price
    $38.00 ($0.36/St) incl. VAT
    $38.00 - $38.00
    Current price $38.00 ($0.36/St) incl. VAT
    BECTON DICKINSON GMBH

    Improve your insulin experience High-quality pen needles with 5-fold sharpening Suitable for all pens State-of-the-art "thin wall" technology Opti...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $38.00 - Original price $38.00
    Original price
    $38.00 ($0.36/St) incl. VAT
    $38.00 - $38.00
    Current price $38.00 ($0.36/St) incl. VAT
  • BD Ultra-Fine™ 5 mm 31G x 5 mm, 105 pcs.

    Original price $43.00 - Original price $43.00
    Original price
    $43.00 ($0.41/St) incl. VAT
    $43.00 - $43.00
    Current price $43.00 ($0.41/St) incl. VAT
    BECTON DICKINSON GMBH

    BD Ultra-Fine™ pen needles Designed for improved insulin flow Easier and faster injection Innovative EasyFlow™ technology Enlarged inner diameter ...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $43.00 - Original price $43.00
    Original price
    $43.00 ($0.41/St) incl. VAT
    $43.00 - $43.00
    Current price $43.00 ($0.41/St) incl. VAT
  • BD Ultra-Fine™ PRO 4 mm 32 G, 105 pcs.

    Original price $38.00 - Original price $38.00
    Original price
    $38.00 ($0.36/St) incl. VAT
    $38.00 - $38.00
    Current price $38.00 ($0.36/St) incl. VAT
    BECTON DICKINSON GMBH

    Improved feeling during insulin injection Tip with 5-fold sharpening Fits all pens Thin wall technology Optimal insulin delivery Silicone-coated s...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $38.00 - Original price $38.00
    Original price
    $38.00 ($0.36/St) incl. VAT
    $38.00 - $38.00
    Current price $38.00 ($0.36/St) incl. VAT
  • NovoPen® 6 silver, 1 pc.

    Original price $130.00 - Original price $130.00
    Original price
    $130.00 ($130.00/St) incl. VAT
    $130.00 - $130.00
    Current price $130.00 ($130.00/St) incl. VAT
    NOVO NORDISK PHARMA GMBH

    NovoPen® 6 in silver: High-quality, reusable injection pen for insulin. Precise dosing: Easy and accurate dosing of insulin thanks to precise cons...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $130.00 - Original price $130.00
    Original price
    $130.00 ($130.00/St) incl. VAT
    $130.00 - $130.00
    Current price $130.00 ($130.00/St) incl. VAT
  • NovoPen® 6 blue, 1 pc.

    Original price $130.00 - Original price $130.00
    Original price
    $130.00 ($130.00/St) incl. VAT
    $130.00 - $130.00
    Current price $130.00 ($130.00/St) incl. VAT
    NOVO NORDISK PHARMA GMBH

    Innovative reusable insulin injection pen Modern design and ease of use Precise dosing for effective diabetes management Compatible with 3 ml Penf...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $130.00 - Original price $130.00
    Original price
    $130.00 ($130.00/St) incl. VAT
    $130.00 - $130.00
    Current price $130.00 ($130.00/St) incl. VAT
  • Tex-Schmelz® dextrose fruit mix, 75g

    Original price $3.00 - Original price $3.00
    Original price
    $3.00 ($0.04/g) incl. VAT
    $3.00 - $3.00
    Current price $3.00 ($0.04/g) incl. VAT
    DR. C. SOLDAN GMBH

    Refreshing sweets with various fruity flavours Contains dextrose containing crystallised water, citric acid, fruit powder, natural flavouring and ...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $3.00 - Original price $3.00
    Original price
    $3.00 ($0.04/g) incl. VAT
    $3.00 - $3.00
    Current price $3.00 ($0.04/g) incl. VAT
  • Canderel Sweet refill pack, 500 pcs.

    Original price $10.00 - Original price $10.00
    Original price
    $10.00 ($0.02/St) incl. VAT
    $10.00 - $10.00
    Current price $10.00 ($0.02/St) incl. VAT
    COSNEM

    Dissolves quickly for a pleasant flavour experience Practical refill pack for hot drinks anywhere and anytime Suitable for small and large Candere...

    View full details
    Ready to ship: Immediately
    Original price $10.00 - Original price $10.00
    Original price
    $10.00 ($0.02/St) incl. VAT
    $10.00 - $10.00
    Current price $10.00 ($0.02/St) incl. VAT

Brief overview of diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by an increased blood sugar level. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and type 2. Type 1 occurs when the body does not produce insulin, while type 2 occurs if the body does not use insulin effectively. Diabetes can lead to serious complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness and amputations.

In this brief overview, the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus are discussed. It is important to understand the causes of diabetes, since the genetic predisposition, obesity, unhealthy nutrition and lack of exercise are among the risk factors. The symptoms include excessive thirst, frequent urination, weight loss and tiredness. The diagnosis of diabetes is carried out by blood tests that measure the blood sugar level. The treatment includes monitoring blood sugar levels, taking medication such as insulin and metformin, healthy nutrition and regular physical activity.

It is important that people with diabetes mellitus regularly monitor their blood sugar levels and carefully monitor their health to minimize the risk of complications.

Meaning of drug treatment in the treatment of diabetes

Medicinal treatment plays a crucial role in the treatment of diabetes, especially in type 2 diabetes. These drugs influence blood sugar levels in different ways, such as increasing insulin production, improving insulin sensitivity or slowing glucose production in the liver. They help the patient to keep their blood sugar levels at an optimal level and thus reduce the risk of diabetes complications.

To prevent diabetes complications, medication are also used that reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, kidney damage, nerve damage and other problems in connection with diabetes. This includes medication to reduce blood pressure, reduce cholesterol levels and to protect the kidney function. These drugs help to reduce the risk of diabetes complications and to improve the quality of life of the patients.

Overall, drugs are an integral part of diabetes treatment, both to control blood sugar levels and to prevent complications. The selection of the right medication and the regular intake in accordance with the doctor's instructions are crucial for the success of the treatment.

Types of oral antidiabetics

Introduction:

Oral Antiabetic Medications are a crucial part of managing diabetes for many individuals. There are A Variety of Oral Antiabetic Medications Available, Each with Unique Mechanisms of Action and Considerations for Use. It is importing for individuals with diabetes and healthcare professionals to have a good understanding of the different types of oral antidiabetic medications in order to determine the most appropriate treatment plan.

Types of oral antidiabetics:

1. Sulfonyluries: These medication work by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. This reduces the blood sugar level.

2. Biguanide: Metformin is the most frequently prescribed drug in this group. It reduces the amount of glucose produced by the liver and increases the sensitivity of the body cells compared to insulin.

3. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medication work by inhibiting the enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase-4, which means that the blood sugar level remains lower after a meal.

4. SGLT-2 inhibitors: These drugs reduce the re-resorption of glucose in the kidneys and promote their excretion via the urine.

It is important that the selection of oral antidiabetic is based on the patient's individual needs and health.

Sulfonyl in fabrics

Sulfonyluries are a group of medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. They work by increasing the production of insulin in the pancreas and improving the sensitivity of the body to insulin. This reduces the blood sugar level.

The areas of application of sulfonyluries include the treatment of type 2 diabetes, especially in patients in whom a diet and movement alone are not sufficient to control the blood sugar level.

Side effects of sulfonyluries can include hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar levels), weight gain, gastrointestinal complaints and skin reactions. These drugs are not suitable for patients with type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis. They should also be avoided during pregnancy and lactation.

Interactions can occur if sulfonyl urine is taken at the same time as other drugs, especially with blood sugar -lowering medication, alcohol, as well as certain antibiotics and antidepressants.

Overall, sulfonyluries are effective medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but it is important to consider the possible side effects and interactions and to discuss with a doctor.

Biguanide

Biguanides, such as metformin, act by reducing glucose production in the liver and increasing the sensitivity of the muscle cells compared to insulin. This leads to a reduction in blood sugar levels and a lower absorption of glucose in the intestine.

Metformin can cause gastrointestinal side effects such as diarrhea, flatulence and digestive disorders and, in rare cases, lactate acidosis. It is not recommended for people with kidney, liver or heart failure, a history of lactic acidosis or alcohol abuse.

Biguanides are often prescribed as initial treatment for type 2 diabetes, since they effectively lower the blood sugar level, minimize the risk of hypoglycaemia and have other positive effects such as weight loss and improved lipid profiles.

Biguanides act like metformin by reducing glucose production and increasing insulin sensitivity. Although they are generally well tolerated, they have possible side effects and should be avoided in certain medical conditions. They are often recommended as initial treatment for type 2 diabetes.

Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitor

Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors are medication that is used for diabetes therapy to slow down the increase in blood sugar after a meal. These drugs block the enzyme alpha-glucosidase in the intestine, which usually converts complex carbohydrates into simpler sugar, which can then be absorbed by the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, the absorption of glucose is delayed and the blood sugar level is stabilized after eating. Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors are usually used in combination with other antidiabetics.

The possible side effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors include flatulence, diarrhea and abdominal pain due to the slowed carbohydrate intake in the intestine. Contraindications for the use of these drugs include the intestinal obstruction, malabsorption syndromes and liver diseases.

The most important active ingredients of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are acarbosis and Miglitol. These active ingredients inhibit the enzyme alpha-glucosidase in the intestine and thus prevent rapid absorption of glucose into the bloodstream. With this mode of action, you contribute to better adjustment of blood sugar levels in diabetes patients.

Overall, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are an important option in diabetes therapy, but their application should be taken into account, taking into account possible side effects and contraindications.

Glinide

Glinides such as repaglinid and Nateglinid stimulate insulin release from the pancreas by acting on the ATP-dependent potassium channels of the beta cells. This mechanism is effective in the control of postprandial hyperglycaemia.

As far as hypoglycaemia are concerned, Glinids have a lower risk compared to sulfonyluries, since they have a shorter duration of action and are taken before meals, which means that the insulin release can be controlled depending on the food intake.

The contraindications for the use of glinids include severe kidney and liver sufficiency, cardiovascular comorbidities and obesity, which can be a higher risk of undesirable effects of glinide therapy in patients.

In the case of a comparison of costs, glinids are usually more expensive than sulfonyluric substances, which can affect accessibility for certain patients.

In general, glinide work by stimulating the pancreas for insulin release, which reduces the likelihood of hypoglycemia compared to sulfonyluries. However, certain counter -displays apply to them and they are more expensive.

Thiazolid indions

Thiazolidindione (TZD) are medication that are prescribed in type 2 diabetes to improve insulin sensitivity. They activate peroxisoma proliferator-activated receptors (PPR) in the cells and thus regulate genes that are related to glucose and fat metabolism. This leads to an increased glucose absorption due to muscle and fat cells as well as reduced glucose production in the liver.

It was found that TZDS have different side effects, such as: B. weight gain, edema, an increased risk of broken bones (especially in women), possible liver oxicity and an increased risk of heart failure in patients with pre -existing heart disease. In addition, there may be a connection between TZDS and an increased risk of bladder cancer, which caused some medication to be removed from the market. These factors suggest that caution is required when prescribing TZDS.

Although TZD's risks mount, they can be used if other diabetes medication does not successfully check blood sugar levels. They are usually prescribed together with other antidiabetics in order to achieve an optimal blood sugar setting in people with type 2 diabetes. However, it is important to pay close attention to possible side effects when using TZDS for diabetes treatment.

DPP-4-inhibitor

The DPP-4 inhibitors are a group of oral antidiabetics to improve blood sugar control in patients with type 2 diabetes. They work by inhibiting the enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase-4, which slows down the dismantling of incretin hormones and thus increases insulin production and reduces glucagon release.

The tolerance of the DPP-4 inhibitors is generally good, with few side effects such as nausea and headache. As a rule, the application takes place once daily, regardless of meals.

In the event of poor kidney, the dose of DPP-4 inhibitors must be adjusted, since they are mainly excreted through the kidneys. In patients with restricted kidney function, dose adjustment is therefore usually required to reduce the risk of side effects.

There are contraindications for the use of DPP-4 inhibitors in liver damage and an increased risk of pancreatitis. In these cases, the application should be avoided because they could increase the risk of complications.

Overall, DPP-4 inhibitors are well tolerated and effective anti-diabetics that can be used in patients with type 2 diabetes, but individual factors such as kidney function and possible contraindications must be taken into account.

Sglt-2-inhibitor

SGLT-2 inhibitors are medication that inhibit the sodium glucose transporter-2, which leads to an increased excretion of glucose over the urine. This process lowers blood sugar levels and can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Possible side effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors are urinary tract infections, increased thirst and low blood pressure.

Various active ingredients such as Empagliflozin, Canagliflozin and Dapagliflozin are available in Germany. These drugs have positive effects on kidney diseases because they reduce renal blood sugar transport and thus relieve the kidneys. In addition, SGLT-2 inhibitors are used in patients with heart failure because they can reduce the risk of heart failure.

The use of SGLT-2 inhibitors is restricted in patients with restricted kidney function, severe liver disease and diabetes mellitus type 1. Possible side effects can also be ketoacidosis, genital infections and broken bones.

Overall, SGLT-2 inhibitors offer a promising therapy option for patients with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, but the application should be carefully weighed.

Mechanism of the effect

The mechanisms of action of substances and technologies are of crucial importance for their application and effectiveness. A profound understanding of the mechanisms through which something works is essential to ensure that it leads to the desired result. Regardless of whether it is medication, chemicals, machines or strategies, the mechanism of effect plays a central role in the development, application and optimization of different things. In this article we will deal with different areas and take a closer look at the mechanisms of the effect. We will discuss how these mechanisms are discovered and researched how they can influence the functionality of different substances and technologies and how they can be used to achieve better results. We will also examine the importance of constant adaptation and further development of the mechanisms of the effect to ensure that you can keep up with the changing requirements and challenges in different areas.

How the individual types of oral antidiabetics lower blood sugar levels

Oral antidiabetics act in different ways to reduce blood sugar levels. Sulfonyluries such as glimepiride and glibe clamide stimulate insulin release by the beta cells of the pancreas, which leads to an increased insulin effect and increased glucose absorption into the cells. Biguanides such as metformin reduce the glucose production of the liver and increase insulin sensitivity in the liver and muscles. This leads to a reduced glucose friction and improved use of glucose through the cells. DPP-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin block the enzyme dipeptidylpeptidase-4, which prevents the breakdown of increstine hormones, which leads to increased insulin release and reduced glucagon release. SGLT-2 inhibitors such as Empagliflozin block the kidney cancellation of glucose, which leads to an increased excretion of glucose over the urine. These different mechanisms of action of oral anti -diabetics influence the insulin release, the insulin effect, the glucose absorption and other processes in the body to lower blood sugar levels.

Indications for application

From antibiotics:

The use of antibiotics is a proven means of treating bacterial infections. They are indispensable in medical practice to combat serious diseases caused by bacteria. There are various indications that speak for the use of antibiotics and in which they are really necessary. These include, for example, bacterial pneumonia, urinary tract infections, certain types of skin infections or sepsis. In these cases, antibiotics are often the only effective treatment method to stop the spread of the infection and heal the patient. It is important to note that antibiotics are not effective in viral infections, such as the flu or colds, and should therefore not be prescribed in such cases. A proper prescription and application of antibiotics is crucial to prevent resistance to bacteria and maintain its effectiveness.

When are oral antidiabetics prescribed by the treating doctor?

Oral antiabetics are prescribed by the treating doctor if a diabetes disease has been diagnosed and drug therapy is required to regulate blood sugar levels. Various factors play a role here, such as the severity of the disease, the individual health of the patient, possible comorbidities, as well as personal preferences and living conditions.

There are various active ingredients of anti -diabetics that are prescribed depending on the situation. This includes, for example, sulfonyluries, biguanides, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2-inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists. These are selected based on various factors such as the individual course of the disease, the laboratory finding and the patient's companion.

When choosing the right drug, specific conditions, symptoms or intolerances must be taken into account. These include, for example, kidney function, liver function, cardiovascular diseases, the risk of hypoglycemia, weight management and existing medication intolerances. The individual adjustment of the therapy is therefore crucial to achieve the best possible effect and tolerability.

Criteria for the selection of the appropriate drug

When choosing the appropriate drug, individual factors such as age, pre- and comorbidities as well as the therapy goals play a crucial role. For example, the age of a patient can influence the compatibility and dosage of the drug. Proofs and comorbidities must also be taken into account, since certain medications may not be compatible with other medication or existing health problems of the patient. The patient's therapy goals, such as the control of blood sugar levels for diabetes or the reduction in blood pressure in the event of high blood pressure, are also important criteria for the selection of medication.

These criteria influence the decision for medication because they ensure that the selected drug corresponds to the individual needs and the patient's health goals. When choosing a therapy, these criteria play a crucial role in ensuring the best possible treatment for the patient.

Taking these individual factors into account, GLP1/GIP receptor agonists can be considered, especially in type 2 diabetes, to regulate blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. These drugs can be used in different circumstances, depending on the individual needs and health of the patient.

possible side effects

Possible side effects of α-glucosidase inhibitors are primarily gastrointestinal complaints such as bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea and nausea. These can occur at the beginning of the treatment, but usually subside if the body gets used to the medication. In addition, interactions with other drugs can occur, especially with medication that influences digestive enzymes.

The effect of the α-Glucosidase inhibitors can be seen quickly after taking it because they delay the absorption of carbohydrates from food. The treating doctor should inform the patients about the possibility of gastrointestinal complaints and point out that this is usually temporary. Patients should also be informed that the drug should be taken in combination with a carbohydrate -rich meal to optimize the effect.

The important measures for successful diabetes therapy include healthy diet, weight loss and regular exercise. A balanced diet with a low glycemic index and regular physical activity can help control the blood sugar level and to support the effect of the medication.

Type 2 diabetes: medication

Various drugs are available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which are selected depending on the individual needs of the patient. This includes metformin, sulfonyluries, DPP-4-inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, SGLT2 inhibitors and insulin. The doctor selects the appropriate drug based on the patient's state of health, kidney function, weight and other individual factors. The dosage of the medication is determined according to blood sugar levels and other medical parameters.

When choosing the drug, the doctor also takes into account possible side effects in order to minimize unwanted reactions. This includes hypoglycaemia, gastrointestinal complaints, weight gain and the risk of infections.

In addition to drug treatment, nutrition plays an important role in the control of type 2 diabetes. The doctor adapts the nutritional recommendations to the selected medication and advises the patient about the right nutrition in order to achieve stable blood sugar control.

It is important that patients with type 2 diabetes perceive regular medical examinations in order to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment and make possible adjustments.

Set individual therapy goals together

The definition of individual therapy goals for people with diabetes is an important basis for successful treatment. In close cooperation with the doctor treating you, these goals can be determined based on various criteria. The life situation, lifestyle, age, physical or mental impairments, the state of health, values, previous experiences and possible effects of therapy measures on the quality of life are taken into account.

It is crucial to understand and take into account the patient's individual needs and restrictions. This can mean, for example, that the therapy goals are adapted to the specific everyday requirements in order to ensure the best possible integration into daily life. In addition, the goals should be realistic and accessible in order to motivate the patient and to be able to successfully implement the therapy measures in the long term.

Open communication and trusting cooperation between the doctor and patient are of great importance. This participatory approach can be defined together in order to achieve the best possible care and an increase in quality of life for people with diabetes.

How do the different antidiabetics work?

Antiabetics act in different ways to regulate the blood sugar level. The active ingredients can influence insulin levels, increase insulin sensitivity, inhibit glucose production in the liver or influence glucose in the body. Some antidiabetics also promote insulin release from the pancreas.

Examples of active ingredient classes are sulfonyl in fabrics, biguanides, gli-flozine, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors. Sulfonyluries stimulate the insulin release from the pancreas, while Biguanide inhibit glucose production in the liver and improve insulin sensitivity. Gliflozine increase the excretion of glucose via the kidneys, while alpha-glucosidase inhibitors delay the absorption of glucose in the intestine.

Overall, these mechanisms of action mean that the blood sugar level is reduced and the metabolic processes in the body are regulated.

How does drug treatment for type 2 diabetes?

The drug treatment for type 2 diabetes depends on individual risk factors and comorbidities. The therapy options include oral anti-diabetics, injections by insulin and other injectable drugs such as GLP-1 receptor agonists. In the case of proven cardiovascular diseases, medication to reduce risk for cardiovascular diseases such as statins and ACE inhibitors can also be included in the treatment.

The recommended medication includes metformin, sulfonyluries, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists. These drugs work either by reducing blood sugar levels, promoting the excretion of glucose through the urine or increasing insulin production.

Possible side effects vary depending on the drug, but can include nausea, diarrhea, hypoglycemia, weight gain or infections of the urinary tract. It is important that patients discuss their treatment with their doctor in order to find the most suitable drugs for their individual needs. Advanced medication may also be required for accompanying diseases such as kidney or cardiovascular diseases.

Insulin therapy

Insulin therapy is an important method of treatment for people with diabetes, in which insulin is inserted into the body to regulate blood sugar levels. Insulin is a vital hormone that is produced by the body to transport glucose from food into the cells and use it as an energy source. However, this process does not work properly in people with diabetes, which increases the blood sugar level too high. In such cases, insulin therapy is essential to improve glucose intake and prevent complications.

Insulin therapy includes various methods, including the injection of insulin with syringes or insulin pens as well as the use of insulin pumps. The dosage and the time of insulin transfer are individually adapted to the patient, based on your blood sugar level, your diet, your activity level and other factors. Insulin therapy requires careful monitoring and self -management to ensure effective control of blood sugar levels. It is crucial that the patients and their supervisors are well informed about how they can use the insulin correctly and pay attention to signals from hypo or hyperglycemic episodes.

Forms of insulin

The different forms of insulin include short -term insulin, medium -long time insulin and long -term insulin. Short-term insulin, also known as the fast-acting insulin, usually begins to work within 15 minutes after the injection and lasts about 3-4 hours. It is used before meals to control the increase in blood sugar after eating. Examples of fast -acting insulins are insulin Aspar, Insulin Glulisin and Insulin Lispro.

Medium-long time insulin or slowly acting insulin, begins to work within 1-2 hours after the injection and lasts about 12-24 hours. As a rule, it is administered once a day to keep blood sugar levels stable over a longer period of time. Examples of medium -long insulin are neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) and insulin glargin insulin.

Long-term insulin, also known as an ultra-long insulin, begins to work within 1-2 hours after the injection and lasts over 24 hours. It is administered once a day and ensures that the insulin requirement is uniform evenly throughout the day. Examples of long -acting insulins are insulin detemir and insulin degludec.

Inhalation insulin consists of insulin, which is available in powder form and is inhaled with a special inhalator. It is used to treat diabetes and offers an alternative to the injection of insulin.

The selection of the insulin and the adaptation of the insulin dose are made on the basis of the individual needs of the patient and the goal of the blood sugar setting. Factors such as blood sugar levels, nutrition, physical activity and possible side effects are taken into account when selecting and adapting the insulin dose.

Selection of the type and dose of insulin

When selecting the insulin type and the insulin dose, doctors must take various factors into account, including the type of diabetes (type 1 or type 2), the patient's individual reaction to insulin, the patient's activity level, the eating habits and the daily routine. Doctors also take into account the patient's insulin needs at different times of the day and adapt the insulin dose accordingly.

The correct insulin combination and dose is determined by analyzing the patient's insulin needs using blood sugar measurements and other tests. Depending on the need, a combination of short and long-acting insulin or a mixture of different insulin types can be prescribed in order to regulate the patient's blood sugar level.

Depending on the time of day, the level of activity and eating habits of the patient, the insulin requirement can change significantly. For example, the insulin requirement can be increased after a meal, while it may decrease during sleep or physical activity. The correct insulin dose and combination are therefore individually adapted to the needs and lifestyle of the patient.

Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia)

Hypoglycemia occurs when the blood sugar level falls below a certain value, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, including trembling, sweating, confusion, rapid heart, visual disturbances and in severe cases even unconsciousness. The causes of hypoglycaemia can be too much insulin, too little food intake, excessive physical activity or alcohol consumption. The treatment options include the absorption of carbohydrates, such as glucose tablets or sugar -containing drinks, to increase blood sugar levels.

It is important that household members and confidants can recognize the signs of hypoglycaemia, since those affected may not be able to take measures to take their blood sugar independently. In severe cases, hypoglycemia can lead to seizures and unconsciousness, which can be life -threatening.

Hypoglycaemia perception disorders can occur if people with diabetes or other metabolic disorders can no longer adequately perceive the signs of hypoglycemia, which can lead to a delayed intervention and a deterioration of the condition. It is therefore important that these people regularly monitor their blood sugar levels and are aware of the risks.

Insulin antibodies

Insulin antibodies affect the effect of insulin by neutralizing the insulin in blood flow and reducing its ability to reduce blood sugar levels. This can lead to inadequate blood sugar control and increase the risk of complications in type 2 diabetes.

Therapy options for type 2 diabetes include various forms of insulin therapy, such as the use of human insulin, fast insulin or long-acting insulin, as well as alternative therapies such as oral antidiabetics or GLP-1 receptor agonists. In the case of insulin antibodies, adaptation of insulin therapy may be necessary to improve the effect of insulin.

The selection of the insulin and the insulin dose are influenced by various factors, including the severity of diabetes, the individual insulin sensitivity, the patient's meal plans and the lifestyle of the patient. It is important to take into account insulin antibodies and to adapt insulin therapy accordingly in order to ensure effective blood sugar control.

Allergic reactions to insulin

Allergic reactions to insulin can cause various symptoms, including rash, itching, redness, swelling at the injection site and even anaphylactic shock. The treatment of allergic reactions to insulin can include the administration of antihistamines, corticosteroids or in severe cases adrenaline. In order to prevent skin reactions on insulin, it is important to change the injection site regularly and pay attention to clean techniques.

Various forms of therapy are available for people with type 2 diabetes, including oral medication, insulin therapy and GLP-1 receptor agonists. The choice of therapy depends on various factors such as the severity of diabetes, individual health and personal preferences. Oral drugs should be considered first before insulin therapy or GLP-1 receptor agonists are considered.

Various insulin therapies include basal insulin, bolus insulin and mixed insulin. Basal insulin is administered once a day and ensures that the blood sugar level is covered evenly, while Bolusininulin is administered before meals to cover the increase in blood sugar levels. Mixed insulin combines basal and bolus insulin in an injection.

Skin reactions on insulin

The administration of insulin can lead to various skin reactions that include both local and allergic reactions. Local reactions can contain fat accuracy collections, node formation, fat destruction and dents around the injection site. These can occur due to the repeated use of the same puncture site. Allergic reactions can lead to pain, burning, reddening, itching and swelling around the injection site. This can be caused by an allergic reaction to the insulin or additives in the insulin solution.

In order to avoid these problems, it is important to change the injection sites regularly. The regular rotation of the injection sites reduces the risk of skin irritation, fat accumulations and tissue changes. By changing the injection sites, it ensures that no certain area is excited and the likelihood of allergic reactions is reduced. In addition, it is important to pay attention to possible signs of skin reactions and to take medical help if necessary.

Orally administered antiabetics

Orally administered antiabetics are medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. There are different types of oral antidiabetics, each with different ways. Some medication helps to increase insulin production, while others improve the insulin sensitivity of the cells or reduce glucose production in the liver.

These drugs are usually prescribed for type 2 diabetics, which their blood sugar levels cannot control by diet and movement alone. They can also be combined with other treatment methods, such as insulin injections or other blood sugar -lowering medication.

The various active ingredients of the oral antidiabetics include sulfonyluries, biguanides, DPP-4 inhibitors and SGLT-2 inhibitors. Each active ingredient group has its own areas of application and can be individually tailored to the patient's needs.

In contrast to non-oral antidiabetics, such as insulin injections, oral antidiabetics are taken in the form of tablets and have different mechanisms of action.

Overall, orally administered antiabetics offer an important option for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and can be used depending on the individual needs and circumstances of the patient.

Injicable anti -diabetics

Injicable anti-diabetics include GLP-1 medication and amylin-like medication. GLP-1 drugs such as exenatide and liraglutid work by increasing insulin production and reducing glucagon release. They can be used to treat type 2 diabetes. Potential side effects include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Amylin-like drugs such as Pramintide are used together with insulin to control blood sugar levels for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Side effects can include nausea, hypoglycemia and abdominal pain.

Apart from insulin, other injectable antihyperglycemic drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus can also be used. This includes GLP-1 receptor agonists and amylin analoga. These drugs can help lower blood sugar levels and reduce body weight. You can also reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.

Overall, injectable anti -diabetics offer a variety of treatment options for people with diabetes, whereby each type of drug has different effects and potential side effects.